evlan.org describes many #addx features

10.31: news.adda/lang"evlan/
evlan.org describes many addx features:

. Kenton Varda's Evlan has many addx features;
but, it "(currently has no type system);
and, it died in 2007.10.1, when the author "(got a real job)!

. what first caught my was cap-based security:
Most of today's computer platforms operate under
a fundamental assumption that has proven utterly false:
that if a user executes a program,
the user completely trusts the program.
This assumption has been made by just about
every operating system since Unix
and is made by all popular operating systems used today.
This one assumption is arguably responsible for
the majority of end-user security problems.
It is the reason malware -- adware, spyware, and viruses --
are even possible to write,
and it is the reason even big-name software
like certain web browsers
are so hard to keep secure.
Under the classical security model,
when a user runs a piece of software,
the user is granting that software the capability
to do anything that the user can do.
Under capability-based security,
when a user runs a piece of software,
the software starts out with no capabilities whatsoever.
The user may then grant specific capabilities to the program.
For example, the user might grant the program
permission to read its data files.
The user could also control whether or not
the program may access the network, play sounds, etc.
Most importantly,
all of these abilities can be controlled
independently on a per-program basis.
. the other main idea like addx
is its being a virtual operating system
which runs on top of any other operating system;
via a virtual machine that is the sole access
to the underlying platform's OS .
. by a complete platform,
he means it is not specialized to be
efficiently accessing all of bloated unix,
but to define what it needs,
and then have the vm access what it needs
for impl'ing the Evlan virtual platform .

adda's secure by language idea:
Even better than implementing security in an operating system,
is implementing it in a programming language:
developers are able to control the capabilities available
to each piece of code independently.
Good practice, then, would be to only give each component
the bare minimum capabilities that it needs to
perform its desired operation.
And, in fact, it is easier to give fewer capabilities,
so this is what programmers will usually do.
The result is that if a security hole exists in some part of your program,
the worst an attacker can do is
gain access to the capabilities that were given to that component.
--[. keep in mind that this won't work without
also implementing security at the hardware level;
this is the level where modularity can be enforced;
otherwise, malware could just jump to
what ever code there is with the permissions it needs .
(see qubes doc's) .]
It is often possible to restrict all "dangerous" capabilities
to one very small piece of code within your program.
Then, all you have to do is make sure that
that one piece of code is secure.
When you are only dealing with a small amount of code,
it is often possible to prove that this is the case.
It is, in fact, quite possible to prove
that a program written in a capability-based language
is secure.
[. great to know if your os and every other app
-- that means esp'ly your browser --
are all written in this provable language ? ]

see: Capability-based Security is used in the
EROS operating system and the E programming language.
Also, Marc Stiegler et al.

addx's idea that concurrency is the key
to secure speed:
Evlan has strong support for highly concurrent programming
being a purely functional language,
Where automatic parallelization is not possible,
there are very lightweight threads (without stacks).
Most of today's systems use imperative languages
meant for a single CPU; eg, [written in adda:]
for(i.int = results`domain):
      results#i`= processItem results#i

. in c, it would process each item in order,
from first to last.
It does not give the system any room to
process two items in parallel
or in some arbitrary (most-efficient) order .
adda aspires to be simple:
It is far easier to remember
multiple uses for a single construct
than to remember multiple constructs.
--[. however he has ada-itis and braggs about
having only 19 keywords;
one of which is "(where)
which could have been said with a reused "(:) .]
interoperability done via compatibility layers:
If and when the legacy software is no longer in use,
the compatibility layers can be removed,
leaving only the ultra-efficient Evlan core behind.
Because Evlan is purely functional,
no function call is allowed to have "side effects".

. see www.acmqueue.com/modules.php?name=Content&pa=showpage&pid=225
(dead link, is this right: queue.acm.org/detail.cfm?id=864034)?
-- ask google where else that link can be found:

Natural programming languages and environments

Communications of the ACM September 2004/Vol. 47, No. 9
by Brad A. Myers, John F. Pane, Andy Ko
This article presents findings on natural programming languages.
(i.e. natural as in intuitive in the UserCentric way)
It advocates features for programming languages,
that are justified by these findings.
Areas include:
    SyntacticSugar, that causes fewer errors
    (it more intuitive/natural).
    Better integrated debugging-support,
    esp. for hypotheses about bug-causes.
which suggests that humans like to write rules of the form
"When condition X is true, do Y".
I am not yet sure to what extent this will
change the current system, however.
natural programming:
By "natural programming" we are aiming for
the language and environment to work the way that
nonprogrammers expect.
We argue that if the computer language were to
enable people to express algorithms and data
more like their natural expressions,
the transformation effort would be reduced.
Thus, the Natural Programming approach
is an application of the standard user-centered design process
to the specific domain of programming languages and environments.

[at that link is a] good short summary of the
Natural Programming project here at CMU.
We're affiliated with the EUSES consortium,
which is a group of universities working on
end-user software engineering.
google's 2007 Update on the Natural Programming Project
Functional Bytecode
Bytecode for the Evlan virtual machine
uses a functional representation of the code.
In contrast, the VMs of Java and .NET
use assembly-like imperative instructions.
. the GNU C Compiler's "Static Single Assignment" phase
is actually very close to being equivalent to
a purely functional language. [no overwrites]
If GCC does this internally just to make optimization easier,
then it doesn't take a huge stretch to imagine a system which
compiles imperative code to functional bytecode .
. another contrast to assembly-like imperative instructions
is addm's idea for a high-level interpreter:
instead of translating from an abstract syntax tree (AST)
into a sequence of assembly instructions;
addm, the vm, would try to evaluate an AST . ]
The purpose of constraining variables to types
is to get the compiler to check your work for bugs
and optimize code as well .
. if you could specify that an index to an array
must be less than the size of the array
-- and if the compiler could then check for that --
then buffer overruns (one of the most common bugs
leading to security holes in modern software)
would be completely eliminated.
(run-time bounds checking can prevent buffer overruns,
but then users see your app shutting down unexpectedly).