Objective-C Categories

1.20: adda/type/obj'c categories:
. Apple is using the obj'c Category for mvc separation;*
eg, string has many uses in a command-line interface,
so it exists in the core package
without any methods for drawing on a gui;
categories are then simply extending that string type,
instead of having sublclasses reuse that string type
in yet another type;
so just one class can exist yet with
relevant parts in different packages .
* see { Buck, Yacktman}`Cocoa Design Patterns
. isn't that use of categories needed only because
it's assuming something demanded by the current oop model?

. if your string wants to talk about gui-specific tricks
like font, or curve following,
that should be served by a drawing record
which then has a string as one of it's parts .
(ie, it's ok to have 2 diff'ing classes !)
that was a main point of the book"design patterns:
it was a critique of oop's use of subclassing;
and, that criticism can apply equally well to categorizing;
but, notice it does have a good purpose:
it allows separate compilation of extensions
without having to recompile the original interface
which would then require a recompile of
all the clients of that interface .

. but in this case, the category pattern is not needed,
the pattern to follow is this:
. the whole point of the mvc pattern is that
nearly all programming should be doable without having to
be aware of what your output device is .
. the same program I write for the command-line
should be apply without modification
to use by the gui-interfaced user .
. the runtime is supposed to have a default way of
visualizing your data structures graphically .
. the user is just another inout process
interacting with your process;
so, the gui should be handled by 2 generic packages:
it communicates with a concurrent process,
and then is also aware of 2-d or 3-d
placement preferences of datastruct's .

. so, how does adda let you define special effects
such as those specific to one style of gui?
eg, the curve-following text
needs a record (string, linedata),
and that record should have a particular name, say SL,
so then any var assigned the type SL
will be treated by the adda system as curve-following text
at least when dealing with the contexts
that are specified as customized by SL .
. the 2 primary contexts that work like that
are the user interface,
and the memory usage:
(persistent file, ram buffer, L1,2,3 cache).
. conversely,
when assigning an SL value to a native type,
then all gui-specific info would be dropped .

analysis of what it offers:
. the category has 2 use cases, depending on
whether you have the interface code,
or just have an interface document
that doesn't list the private ivars of the type .
. if you don't have the interface,
the diff' it makes seems purely syntactic:*
native functions can be stated oopishly: x`f();
and with categories you can start writing x`MYf() .
. that is offering more than just
adding a package whose input types are x`type:
the new package is being registered with the type,
so when I ask that type to apply a symbol named MYf,
the run-time engine is able to say it does .
. so, what is the equivalent to that
in lispy procedural (vs oop) programming?
. say the apply-operator is @,
I can then say ('f @ 'x) to mean f(x),
so that to apply dynamically any variable, X,
to any function, F,
I can write X`= 'x, F`= 'f, .... F @ X .
. it then looks to see if there exists a function f
that accepts x`type .
*: [1.31:
. even without affecting ivars,
the diff' it makes can be quite significant;
because, it can override methods that have
special systemic effects on the ivars,
and those effects will be missing .

. the oop syntax allows this:
which means that x`f() returns an object x2
which, in turn, understands
what to do with g(), etc .
. so, the functional equivalent to x`f(...)`g(...)`h(...)
is h(g(f(x, ...), ... ), ...).
. that could mean the run-time is doing another check:
is there an f(x`type).y,
such that there is a function named g
that can accept y`type ?
. obj'c is not concerned with that though,
because once you assign a function to a particular type,
the run-time can quickly know to use
the function name f that is registered with that type .
. after that, it doesn't matter whether g can handle it;
because the object returned by x`type according to x`f
is offering no other choices .
. the reason obj'c does it this way
is for the other use case:
where the interface is known so then the
functions being added to x`type
need to register with x`type because
otherwise they won't be granted access to x`type's
private instance var's .
. this, then, is what obj'c categories uniquely do;
it's something like ada's child package feature .